What are Transactions?
Transactions are protective blocks where SQL statements are only permanent if they can all succeed as one atomic action. Transactions are used to enforce the integrity of the database and guard the data against program errors or database break-downs.
So basically you should use transaction blocks whenever you have a number of statements that must be executed together or not at all.
Transaction makes sure either all the statements persist or none do.
Transactions in Active Record
Rails provides transaction as a class method under the ActiveRecord::Base class. We can use the method like so:
1ActiveRecord::Base.transaction do 2 #Database transactions go here 3end
All changes, that the statements within the transaction block tries to make, get committed to the database, only if each of the statement run without raising an error. If any statement raises an error, then all the changes will be rollback.
Transactions in action
The classic example of Transactions in action is a transfer between two accounts where you can only have a deposit if the withdrawal succeeded and vice versa.
Implemented naively our code might look something like this:
1david.debit_account(amount) if david.sufficient_balance(amount) 2credit_amount = convert_currency(amount, recipient) 3perform_transfer(mary, credit_amount, sender)
While ideally the implementation works, what will happen if our program crashes at any point after we debit David's account?
Then we would have debited the amount from David's account but not successfully transferred it to Mary's account, leading to the money essentially disappearing.
Wrapping the above queries in a transaction block will make sure that the withdrawal only occurs if none of the other functions throw an exception. This will help us in maintaining data integrity.
1ActiveRecord::Base.transaction do 2 david.debit_account(amount) if david.sufficient_balance(amount) 3 credit_amount = convert_currency(amount, recipient) 4 perform_transfer(mary, credit_amount, sender) 5end
Different Active Record classes in a single transaction
A transaction is a class method, therefore it must be called upon an Active Record class. However it is not necessary that all objects in the block should be an instance of that class. This is because transactions are per-database connection and not per-model.
For example let's consider two models Balance and Account and we want to transactionally save both the models.
Irrespective of the class the transaction is called upon, we can call save! on objects of both the models in the block.
We can call transaction on Account:
1Account.transaction do 2 balance.save! 3 account.save! 4end
The above block will save balance as well as account even though we are calling the method on Account class.
The transaction method is also available as a model instance method. For example, we can also do this:
1account.transaction do 2 balance.save! 3 account.save! 4end
Note: A transaction acts on a single database connection. If you have multiple class-specific databases, the transaction will not protect interaction amongst them. One workaround is to begin a transaction on each class whose model needs altering.
Calling transactions on ActiveRecord::Base vs Model Class vs Model Instance
As mentioned in the previous section, we can call the transaction method on ActiveRecord::Base class, model class, or a model instance. You might be wondering how these three are different.
Rails provides the transaction method under the ActiveRecord::Base Class. Since every model inherits ActiveRecord::Base the transaction method is available to every model class.
The transaction method called on a model class works exactly like ActiveRecord::Base.transaction unless we specifically override it to set or get its database connection.
Calling the transaction method on model instance is a convenience method that let's us write more syntactically beautiful code.
For example, let's consider the following code snippet:
1account = Account.find(1) 2account.transaction do 3 account.save! 4 balance.save! 5end
Under the hood account.transaction calls the transaction method on the Account class. It is equivalent to the following code snippet:
1account = Account.find(1) 2Account.transaction do 3 account.save! 4 balance.save! 5end
Transactional nature of save and destroy methods
One important implementation of transactions are in save and destroy methods of Active Record. Both methods are automatically wrapped in a transaction that ensures that whatever you do in validations or callbacks will happen under its protected cover. So you can use validations to check for values that the transaction depends on or you can raise exceptions in the callbacks to rollback, including after_* callbacks.
Exception handling and rolling back
There are two common ways to raise an exception in a Rails transaction:
- Using Active Record bang methods like save!, update!, etc.
- Manually raising an exception.
Generally the exceptions in a transaction block will be propagated, after triggering ROLLBACK. So you should be ready to catch those exceptions in your application code.
Let's say we have a transaction that creates a new Account and updates another account like so:
1Account.transaction do 2 @new_account = Account.create!(account_params) 3 @referrer.update!(params[:reference_record]) 4end
The create! and update! method will throw an exception if something goes wrong.
Note: If we were to use, the non-bang version of these methods, that is create or update, then instead they would indicate failure via their return value and the transaction would keep running.
If for some reason we want to use the non-bang version of these methods, then we can always raise an exception manually to check the return value like so:
1Account.transaction do 2 @new_account = Account.create(account_params) 3 raise ActiveRecord::RecordInvalid unless @new_user.persisted? 4 ... 5end
Now we can rescue this error in our code:
1Account.transaction do 2 @new_account = Account.create(account_params) 3 raise ActiveRecord::RecordInvalid unless @new_user.persisted? 4 ... 5rescue ActiveRecord::RecordInvalid => exception 6 #handle the error here 7end
There is one caveat while rescuing exceptions in transactions. While we can rescue most exceptions in the transaction block, we should not catch ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid exception in transaction block. This is because ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid indicates that an error occurred at the database level, for example a unique constraint is violated.
On some database systems, such as PostgreSQL, database errors inside a transaction cause the entire transaction to become unusable until it's restarted from the beginning.
Let's demonstrate this problem using a User model that has a unique constraint on email:
1ActiveRecord::Base.transaction do 2 User.create(email:"email@example.com") 3 4 begin 5 # This will raise a unique constraint error 6 User.create(email:"firstname.lastname@example.org") 7 rescue ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid 8 # Since the entire transaction becomes unusable once the error is raised this block is ignored. 9 end 10 11 # On PostgreSQL the transaction is now unusable. 12 # The following statement will throw an error even though no constraint is being violated. 13 User.create(email:"email@example.com") 14 # => "PG::Error: ERROR: current transaction is aborted, commands 15 # ignored until end of transaction block" 16end
In such cases, you should restart the entire transaction if an ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid occurred.
Previously we have mentioned that exceptions thrown within a transaction block will be propagated. The one exception to this is when ActiveRecord::Rollback exception is raised which will trigger a ROLLBACK when raised, but not be re-raised by the transaction block.
This exception is important to consider when we make use of nested transactions in the upcoming section.
The transactions we have used so far allow us to only work with a single database in a block. This is suitable for our project since we are only using one database.
But what if we are working on a project with multiple databases and we need to ensure data integrity across multiple databases? This is where nesting Active Record transactions come in handy.
For example, say we have two models User and Account that point to two different databases. We want to withdraw the subscription amount from Account and then update subscription status in User. Obviously, we want to achieve this in a transactional way.
We can use nested transaction to make sure both the statements execute together or not at all:
1Account.transaction do 2 account = Account.find(user_id: params[:user_id]) 3 account.withdraw(subscription_amount) 4 User.transaction do 5 user = User.find(id: params[:user_id]) 6 user.update!(subscribed: true) 7 end 8end
If any part of the inner transaction fails, it will cause the outer transaction to be aborted. This allows us to transactionally update records across multiple databases.
The above snippet makes sure that the subscribed value is only updated if the subscription_amount is withdrawn and vice versa.
As mentioned in the previous section there is one caveat when an ActiveRecord::Rollback error is raised.
1User.transaction do 2 User.create(username: 'Oliver') 3 User.transaction do 4 User.create(username: 'Sam') 5 raise ActiveRecord::Rollback 6 end 7end
The above snippet results in both Oliver and Sam being created.
The reason behind this can be explained in two parts.
The first part has to the do with the way ActiveRecord::Rollback exception is raised in Rails. In the above snippet the exception is caught by the inner transaction block, which triggers a ROLLBACK. However since ActiveRecord::Rollback exception is not re-raised by the transaction block, the outer transaction is unaware of the exception ever being raised.
The second part of the reason has to do with the way nested transactions are implemented in Rails. At the time of writing, most databases don't support nested transactions at the database level. The only database that we're aware of that supports nested transactions is MS-SQL. Because of this, ActiveRecord emulates nested transactions by using savepoints. You can refer to the Official MySQL Reference on Savepoints (Link is not available) for more information about savepoints.
Since the inner transaction is emulated and not treated as a real transaction, when the outer transaction sees no error raised in its block it commits all statements instead of rolling back the inner transaction's statements.
A way around this is passing requires_new: true to the transaction method of the inner transaction, that we think may raise the ActiveRecord::Rollback exception. What this does is it instructs Rails to treat the nested emulated transaction as real. If anything goes wrong, then the database rolls back to the beginning of the sub-transaction without rolling back the parent transaction. We can add it to the previous example:
1User.transaction do 2 User.create(username: 'Oliver') 3 User.transaction(requires_new: true) do 4 User.create(username: 'Sam') 5 raise ActiveRecord::Rollback 6 end 7end
This will result in only Oliver being created.
There are two types of callbacks associated with transactions:
after_commit callbacks are called on every record saved or destroyed within a transaction immediately after the transaction is committed.
after_rollback callbacks are called on every record saved or destroyed within a transaction immediately after the transaction or savepoint is rolled back.
These callbacks are useful for interacting with other systems since you will be guaranteed that the callback is only executed when the database is in a permanent state.
For example, after_commit is a good spot to put in a method that clears cache since clearing it from within a transaction could trigger the cache to be regenerated before the database is updated.