Active Record finder methods

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In the previous chapter we learnt how we can query a task from the database using the find_by method.

There are several methods which we can use to query one or more than one records from database. In this chapter we will take a look at these finder methods.


Let's take an example where a task with ID 1 doesn't exist. What happens when we query a task record with ID 1. Before moving on, pause for a moment to think about what will be the output if we query a record which doesn't exist. Will we get a null value for output?

To answer the question, it depends upon the finder_method used to query data. For eg, If we use the find method:


The above command will raise an exception if there doesn't exist a task with ID 1. You can get away with it if you properly handle exceptions in your Rails application. Handling exceptions is always a good thing.

But how do we prevent exceptions? Let's take a look at some other finder_methods to answer that question.


Using find_by is convenient when we are searching for a record using a column of the record:

1Task.find_by(name: "Get Milk")
2Task.find_by(desc: "Get Eggs")

If a record isn't found then the find_by method will return a nil value. Note that the bang version(!) of find_by will raise an exception if no record is found.

1Task.find_by!(name: "Get Milk")
2Task.find_by!(desc: "Get Eggs")

Above commands will raise an exception if no record is found.


Active Record allows us to use where to build more complex queries:

1Task.where(name: "Get Milk", user_id: 3).first

Please note that where operation returns ActiveRecord:Relation. Also note that return of where clause could be a collection of records.

Don't use dynamic finder methods

For every field or attribute that you have defined in your table, ActiveRecord generates a dynamic finder method. For example, in our Task model we have defined title and slug fields for which ActiveRecord will provide finder methods find_by_title and find_by_slug for our Task model.

While these method may seem convenient at first, but we strongly recommend against using them.

One reason being that the method names can become cumbersome when querying multiple fields. For example, if we want to query title and slug together we can do so with finder methods like so:

1Task.find_by_title_and_slug("Task title", "task-title")


1Task.find_by_slug_and_title("task-title", "Task Title")

On the other hand we can achieve the same result using the find_by method as it takes in multiple arguments, like so:

1Task.find_by(title: "Task Title", slug:"task-title")

As we can see using the find_by method is far more concise and legible when compare to the finder method approach.

The second, and perhaps more important reason to not use dynamic finder methods is the way they are implemented under the hood. Dynamic finder methods are implemented via method_missing which takes a huge toll at performance comparatively.

finder methods file in Ruby on Rails

Rails has a file named finder_methods which lists a lot of finder methods which are worth taking a look.

Best practices

We should use the find method over find_by! method if we are querying using the id attribute only. Because in the find method we can directly pass the id value without defining any key which makes the code cleaner.

For example:

1# Incorrect way
2def load_user!
3  @user = User.find_by!(id: params[:id])
5# Correct way
6def load_user!
7  @user = User.find(params[:id])

There is nothing to commit in this chapter.